branches of biology from a to z

100 Branches of Biology From A to Z

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After physics and chemistry, biology is one of the three primary fields of study in the science stream that deals with life and living things. branches of biology from a to z will be a discourse on this article.

The study of the physical makeup, molecular interactions, chemical composition, growth, physiological mechanisms, and evolutionary processes of living things falls under the purview of natural science.

In biology, there are numerous specialized fields. However, since cells are the smallest fundamental unit of life, they are a subject of research for all branches of biology.

It is regarded as one of the most difficult disciplines to study because it is made up of numerous branches or disciplines. However, the scope of biology as a vocation is fairly broad because it covers the ideas of a wide range of subfields.

You will gain knowledge about numerous biological specialties and their application in today’s expanding global environment through this blog.

The branch of biology which is concerned with the interrelationship between plants and animals is called Ecology.


Just what is biology?

Examining living entities and their vital activities is the focus of the study discipline of biology. Botany, ecology, evolution, genetics, marine biology, medicine, microbiology, molecular biology, physiology, and zoology are just a handful of the many fields that make up biology.


Branches of Biology from A to Z

Here are the branches of biology from a to z.

Botany, zoology, and microbiology make up the primary three branches of Biology

1. A

Anatomy: is the study of the parts and structures of living organisms.

Astrobiology: the study of life in space


2. B

Biotechnology: the study of biologically-inspired technologies

Botany: the study of plants scientifically

Biochemistry is the study of chemical reactions that occur inside or around living things.

Biophysics: the study of physical phenomena and processes in living things

Bionics: Study of mechanical systems that work like living things or as part of a living organism

Bioinformatics is the study of using computer science to understand biological data.

branches of biology from a to z

3. C

Cell biology is the study of how cells are built and work.

Chemical biology is the study of applying chemistry to biological issues.

Computational biology: the study of leveraging data from biological systems to create algorithms that can be used to understand biological systems

Conservation Biology: Study of environmental conservation and biodiversity on the earth

Chronobiology: Study of effects of time on biological events as well as internal biological rhythms and clocks


4. D

Developmental biology: is the study of how plants and animals grow and develop.


5. E

Evolutionary biology: is the study of how organisms evolve, diversify, and adapt across time.

Ecology : is the study of how organisms interact with their environment.

Environmental biology: the study of living things’ environments, adaptations, and evolution


6. G

Genetics: Study of genes, genetic variation and heredity in living beings

Geobiology: the study of the interactions between physical, chemical, and biological processes in their natural environments

Gerontology:  is the study of aging, including its effects on the body, mind, society, psychology, and culture.


7. H

Human biology is the study of the various characteristics of the human species, including its genetics, heredity, and anatomy.

Human Genetics: Study of the human genome and transmission of genes from one generation to another


8. I

Immunology: Study of the immune system in all organisms


9. L

Lichenology: Study of Lichens


10. M

Marine biology is the study of marine life and organisms.
study of fungi, or mycology

Microbiology is the study of microbes, or tiny living things.

Studying the chemical makeup and biological functions of molecules is called molecular biology.


11. N

Neurobiology is the study of how cells and nervous systems work.

Nutrition Science: Study of food, its nutrients and their effects on health and diseases


12. P

Pathology: the study of illness or damage

Physiology is the study of how the body works.

Paleobiology is the study of palaeontology as a branch of applied biology and life science.

Phycology: Study of algae

Parasitology: Study of parasites, their hosts and their relationships

Plant physiology:  is the study of how plants behave and operate in relation to their internal structures and operations.

Photobiology: Study of beneficial or bad impact of light on living organisms

branches of biology from a to z

13. R

Radiobiology:  is the study of ionizing radiation and how it affects people.


14. S

Structural Biology: Study of the structure of biological molecules

Soil Biology: Study of living organisms in the soil

Systems Biology: Study of biological systems


15. T

Taxonomy: Study of naming, classifying, arranging, and describing living organisms


16. V

Virology is the study of viruses and viral illnesses.


17. Z

Zoology: the study of the kingdom of plants


25 Branches of Biology

Here are the major 25 branches of biology:

  1. Anatomy
  2. Botany
  3. Taxonomy
  4. Biotechnology
  5. Plant Physiology
  6. Immunology
  7. Marine Biology
  8. Photobiology
  9. Radiobiology
  10. Zoology
  11. Microbiology
  12. Mycology
  13. Phycology
  14. Parasitology
  15. Virology
  16. Physiology
  17. Theoretical Biology
  18. Cell Biology
  19. Genetics
  20. Ecology
  21. Evolution
  22. Biochemistry
  23. Biophysics
  24. Molecular Biology
  25. Structural Biology


1. Anatomy

One of the key areas of biology is anatomy, which enables a person to comprehend the composition and parts of all living things, including humans, animals, and other species.

Additionally, it explores how a living body adapts to and maintains equilibrium with the natural world and human health.

2. Botany

Another important area of biology is botany, which is used to investigate plants’ structure, histology, physiology, genetics, and ecology.

The course also addresses the effects of plants on the environment and the economic value of distinct ecosystems. You can start a career in botany by pursuing a BSc in Botany after your 12th grade year.

3. Taxonomy

The classification and naming of various creatures according to their traits is one of the most crucial aspects of biology.

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4. Biotechnology

This is one of the branches of biology from a to z is biotechnology. The term “biotechnology” refers to the use of biological processes for the synthesis of hormones, antibodies, and other products with industrial application.


5. Plant Physiology

Another branches of biology from a to z is Plant Physiology. The branch of botany known as plant physiology studies how plants function and their physiology.


6. Immunology

Immunology is one of the branches of biology from a to z. One of the scientific and medical fields that deals with immunity is immunology.

The finer details of tissue transplantation and malignancies are among the immunological mechanisms that people learn. The study of the causes of autoimmune reactions is another area of immunology research.


7. Marine Biology

One of the branches of biology from a to z is marine biology. The scientific study of marine life’s behavior and interactions with the oceans, seas, and other aspects of the marine environment is known as marine biology.



8. Photobiology

Photobiology is one of the branches of biology from a to z. The scientific study of how living things interact with light, including visible, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation is known as photobiology.


9. Radiobiology

This is one of the branches of biology from a to z. The study of how ionizing radiation affects living things and how it affects their health is known as radiobiology.


10. Zoology

Another branches of biology from a to z is zoology. One of the fundamental subfields of biology is zoology, which focuses on the study of animal physiology, structure, classification, and distribution. The BSc and MSc in Zoology are the finest options for this field of study.


11. Microbiology

This is one of the branches of biology from a to z. Microbiology is the study of life and actions of microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, etc. Through Microbiology courses you will get to understand their metabolism and growth in a detailed way.


12. Mycology

Mycology is one of the branches of biology from a to z. The study and research of fungus are known as mycology. Multicellular organisms known as fungi, which are unable to produce their own food, are important players in the ecosystem’s nutrient cycling.

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13. Phycology

This is one of the branches of biology from a to z. Algae, which are a diverse collection of aquatic organisms capable of photosynthesis, are the subject of the scientific study of phycology.


14. Parasitology

Another branches of biology from a to z is parasitology. Understanding parasitic organisms that live on the host and feed on it is one of the goals of the biological and medical field of parasitology.


15. Virology

This is another branches of biology from a to z is virology. The study of viruses and viral diseases is covered under the most popular area of biology, called virology.


16. Physiology

Physiology is one of the branches of biology from a to z. One of the less well-known areas of biology is physiology, which examines how different sections of living things typically perform their varied tasks.

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17. Theoretical Biology

When comparing the various fields of biology, theoretical biology, also known as mathematical biology, is a lucrative alternative. It is an interdisciplinary subject of scientific inquiry with applications in medicine, biology, and biotechnology.


18. Cell Biology

The study of cell biology focuses on the composition and operation of the cell and is based on the biological tenet that the cell is the basic building block of all life.


19. Genetics

The study of genes, genetic variations, and the laws of heredity in living things is referred to as genetics.

The notions of molecular genetics and genetic mapping, which are significant when it comes to the various fields of biology, will also be covered.


20. Ecology

Ecology is the study of how living things, such as plants, animals, including people, and microbial communities, interact with one another and their natural surroundings.


21. Evolution

The process of heritable modifications and diversification in various types of organisms over many generations is known as evolution.

branches of biology from a to z

22. Biochemistry

The study of numerous chemical and physical processes that take place within the living organism is known as biochemistry, which is the junction of biology and chemistry. Students who want to work in the medical and pharmaceutical areas should choose this subject.


23. Biophysics

Applying physics’ rules to biological events or phenomena is the subject of biophysics.


24. Molecular Biology

The branch of biology known as molecular biology studies the makeup and purposes of proteins and nucleic acids.


25. Structural Biology

The field of biochemistry, biophysics, and microbiology known as structural biology enables researchers to examine the molecular makeup of biological macromolecules.

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Branches of Biology and Their Fathers

Here are the different branches of Biology and their fathers:

Branches of Biology                                                                             Fathers

Paleontology                                                                                   Leonardo di Vinci

Botany                                                                                           Theophrastus

Immunology                                                                                    Edward Jenner

Medicine                                                                                         Hippocrates

Microbiology                                                                                    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek

Taxonomy                                                                                        Carl Linnaeus

Histology                                                                                          Marie François Xavier Bichat

Indian Mycology                                                                                Edwin John Butler

Zoology                                                                                            Aristotle

Modern Botany                                                                                  Linnaeus

Indian Ecology                                                                                   Ramdeo Misra

Indian Phycology                                                                                Parthasarthy Iyengar

Bacteriology                                                                                       Louis Pasteur

Plant Physiology                                                                                 Stephen Hales

Botanical Illustrations                                                                          Krateuas

Mutation Theory                                                                                 Hugo de Vries

Modern Genetics                                                                                Thomas Hunt Morgan

Cytology                                                                                           Robert Hooke

Modern Embryology                                                                           Karl Ernst von Baer


Why Study Different Branches of Biology?

Biology is the scientific study of life and the diverse life forms, and it provides in-depth knowledge of how all living and nonliving things interact with one another in the environment.

Thus, specializing in biology can help you comprehend ideas pertaining to the sustainability of life, food quality, disease causes, the environment and ecology, drug development, etc.

Let’s examine some of the main motivations for choosing biological specializations as a career:

  • It aids in your comprehension of how human bodies change over time, as well as how they look and how different metabolic processes operate within the body.
  • It offers a variety of employment options, from Botany and Anatomy to Biotechnology and Genetics.
  • Using the application of several fields of biology, large-scale issues such as the existence of pollution, growing population, increase of infections and diseases, scarcity of food supply, etc. can be examined and solutions can be found.
  • creates a path for scientific research, improving your chances of launching a successful research career.
  • promotes the idea of simple living. It encourages people to grow trees in order to improve the environment. You can efficiently create shelters if you are aware of the human body’s temperature.

Link To branches of biology website

occupations in biology

Different branches of biology will present themselves as topics of interest to research, whether you are interested in studying animals, informing families about birth defects, or in inventing medical gadgets.

Because of biology’s broad range, experts can contribute to science in a huge variety of ways. The following is a list of career options for biology experts and enthusiasts:

  • Biochemists and Biophysicists
  • Bioinformatics Scientists
  • Geoscientists
  • Conservation Scientists and Foresters
  • Environmental Specialists and Scientists
  • Microbiologists
  • Biomedical Engineers
  • Biological Science Teachers
  • Genetic Counselors
  • Veterinarians
  • Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists
  • Biological Technicians
  • Chemical Technicians
  • Forensic Science Technicians
  • Medical Laboratory Technologists


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